Knee Injuries – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Causes of Knee Injuries

  • While direct blows will occur, the knee is more susceptible to twisting or stretching injuries, taking the joint through a greater range of motion than it can tolerate.
  • If the knee is stressed from a specific direction, then the ligament trying to hold it in place against that force can tear. Ligament stretching or tears are called sprains.
  • Injuries of the muscles and tendons surrounding the knee are caused by acute hyperflexion or hyperextension of the knee or by overuse.

Knee Injury Symptoms

  • Acute knee injuries can cause pain and swelling with difficulty bending the knee and weight-bearing.
  • Longer-term symptoms that point to knee problems will include pain and swelling in addition to other complaints.
  • Inflammation in the joint may be caused by even minor activity. Swelling may be intermittent, brought on by activity, and may gradually resolve as the inflammation decreases.
  • Locking is the term used when the knee joint refuses to completely straighten, and this is always due to torn cartilage. In this situation, the torn piece of cartilage folds upon itself and doesn’t allow the knee to extend.

Emergent medical care should be sought if, due to injury:

  • There is almost immediate swelling in the knee
  • If the bones appear deformed
  • If there is inability to bear weight
  • If the pain is intolerable
  • If there is loss of sensation below the injury site
  • Or if the foot and ankle turn cold and no pulses can be felt.

Treatment

  • Almost all knee injuries will need more than one visit to the doctor. If no operation is indicated, then RICE (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) with some strengthening exercises and perhaps physical therapy will be needed. Sometimes the decision for surgery is delayed to see if the RICE and physical therapy will be effective.
  • With the technology available, many knee injuries that require surgery can be treated surgically with an arthroscope, where a camera is used and small punctures are made in the knee to insert instruments. Patients usually begin their post-op rehabilitation within days of the surgery.
  • Sometimes surgery is delayed to allow the patient to strengthen the muscles around the knee joint. If there is no rush to operate, then opportunity exists to strengthen the quadriceps and hamstring muscles beforehand to allow for easier post-operative therapy

Hip Replacement Surgery

Hip Replacement Surgery also known as arthroplasty is a surgical procedure which involves replacement of the damaged parts of the hip joint with new artificial parts. The artificial part or prosthesis is made of metal which improves mobility of the hip and relieves pain.

The most common cause of damage of the hip joint is osteoarthritis. The other conditions which lead to hip replacement surgery are rheumatoid arthritis, osteonecrosis, injury and bone tumors.

Procedure

During a hip replacement surgery a 6-8 inch incision is made over the side of the hip through the muscle and the damaged bone tissue and cartilage are removed. The head of the femur and acetabulum are replaced with new artificial parts.

Now-a-days surgeons perform minimally invasive hip replacement.

Two kinds of artificial parts are available. They are cemented parts and non-cemented parts.

Length

A usual Hip replacement surgery lasts for 1 to 2 hours.

Risks

The possible risks involved are:

  • Infection
  • Loosening of prosthesis
  • Dislocation
  • Wear
  • Breakage
  • Impaired nerve function

Side Effects

In certain cases, pain and irritation is a common side effect of hip replacement surgery.

Sports Injuries

Sports medicine specializes in preventing, diagnosing and treating injuries related to participating in sports and/or exercise, specifically the rotation or deformation of joints or muscles caused by engaging in such physical activities.

Sports injuries are injuries that occur to athletes participating in sporting events. In many cases, these types of injuries are due to overuse of a part of the body when participating in a certain activity. For example, runner’s knee is a painful condition generally associated with running, while tennis elbow is a form of repetitive stress injury at the elbow, although it does not often occur with tennis players. Other types of injuries can be caused by a hard contact with something. This can often cause a broken bone or torn ligament or tendon.

Sports injuries can be broadly classified as either traumatic or overuse injuries. Traumatic injuries account for most injuries in contact sports such as Association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football, Gaelic football and American football because of the dynamic and high collision nature of these sports. These injuries range from bruises and muscle strains, to fractures and head injuries.

A bruise or contusion is damage to small blood vessels which causes bleeding within the tissues. A muscle strain is a small tear of muscle fibers and a ligament sprain is a small tear of ligament tissue. The bodys response to these sports injuries is the same in the initial five day period immediately following the traumatic incident – inflammation.

Signs and symptoms

Inflammation is characterized by pain, localized swelling, heat, redness and a loss of function.
Treatment

Sports injuries can be treated and managed by using the P.R.I.C.E.R… DR. ABC and T.O.T.A.P.S regimes:
1. P – Protect
2. R – Rest
3. I – Ice
4. C – Compression
5. E – Elevation
6. R – Referral
7. D – Danger
8. R – Response
9. A – Airway
10. B – Breathing
11. C – Circulation
12. T – Talk
13. O – Observe
14. T – Touch
15. A – Active movement
16. P – Passive movement
17. S – Skills test

The inflammatory stage typically lasts around 5 days and all treatment during this time is designed to address the cardinal signs of inflammation pain, swelling, redness, heat and a loss of function.

Compression sportswear is becoming very popular with both professional and amateur athletes. These garments are thought to both reduce the risk of muscle injury and speed up muscle recovery.

All You need to know about Knee Injury

Causes of Knee Injuries

  • While direct blows will occur, the knee is more susceptible to twisting or stretching injuries, taking the joint through a greater range of motion than it can tolerate.
  • If the knee is stressed from a specific direction, then the ligament trying to hold it in place against that force can tear. Ligament stretching or tears are called sprains.
  • Injuries of the muscles and tendons surrounding the knee are caused by acute hyperflexion or hyperextension of the knee or by overuse.

Knee Injury Symptoms

  • Acute knee injuries can cause pain and swelling with difficulty bending the knee and weight-bearing.
  • Longer-term symptoms that point to knee problems will include pain and swelling in addition to other complaints.
  • Inflammation in the joint may be caused by even minor activity. Swelling may be intermittent, brought on by activity, and may gradually resolve as the inflammation decreases.
  • Locking is the term used when the knee joint refuses to completely straighten, and this is always due to torn cartilage. In this situation, the torn piece of cartilage folds upon itself and doesn’t allow the knee to extend.
  • Emergent medical care should be sought if, due to injury
    • there is almost immediate swelling in the knee,
    • if the bones appear deformed,
    • if there is inability to bear weight,
    • if the pain is intolerable,
    • if there is loss of sensation below the injury site
    • or if the foot and ankle turn cold and no pulses can be felt.

 Treatment

  • Almost all knee injuries will need more than one visit to the doctor. If no operation is indicated, then RICE (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) with some strengthening exercises and perhaps physical therapy will be needed. Sometimes the decision for surgery is delayed to see if the RICE and physical therapy will be effective.
  • With the technology available, many knee injuries that require surgery can be treated surgically with an arthroscope, where a camera is used and small punctures are made in the knee to insert instruments. Patients usually begin their post-op rehabilitation within days of the surgery.
  • Sometimes surgery is delayed to allow the patient to strengthen the muscles around the knee joint. If there is no rush to operate, then opportunity exists to strengthen the quadriceps and hamstring muscles beforehand to allow for easier post-operative therapy

Elbow Injuries | Elbow Disorders

Elbow injuries are common in both adults and children. Early recognition and treatment of an elbow injury can reduce the risk of complications and later disability. Any serious injury of the elbow deserves medical attention.

Symptoms
If your elbow shows any of the following signs you may have a fracture or another injury that needs medical attention.

  • Swelling of your elbow or in the area immediately above or below your elbow.
  • Deformity of your elbow, or the areas near your elbow.
  • Discoloration, such as bruising or redness of your elbow.
  • Difficulty moving your elbow through its complete range of motion

Medical Treatment
Treatment of a broken elbow depends on the type of injury that you have suffered. Your treatment may be as simple as elevating your splinted arm, applying ice to any swollen areas, and taking pain relievers. Treatment can also include operations to repair bones, nerves, and blood vessels. Children and adults usually have different types of elbow injuries. They also heal in very different ways. For these reasons, different treatments are often used for adults and children with broken elbows.

Surgery

  • Sometimes an operation to repair your broken elbow is the best choice. This is particularly true if you have an open, or compound, elbow injury.
  • An open elbow injury means that 1 or more of the bones at the elbow has come through the skin.
  • Not only does the bone need to be put in place, but it also needs to be thoroughly cleaned so infection does not occur. This is best done in an operating room.
  • Elbow injuries that damage nerves and blood vessels often need to be fixed in the operating room. Medical researchers have found that certain types of broken elbows heal better if they are repaired in the operating room. Your doctor will discuss the treatment options with you and help you make the best choice.

All you need to know about Shoulder Injury

What is shoulder injury?

It involves a fracture of the collar bone or clavicle. This bone is usually fractured as a result of falling badly onto an outstretched arm.

Common Shoulder Injuries Include:

1. AC joint injury
2. Disclocated shoulder
3. Impingement syndrome
4. Frozen shoulder
5. Rotator cuff injury
6. Fracture of the clavicle
7. Glenohumeral Instability / Subluxation
8. Glenoid Labrum Injury
9. Inflammation of muscle attachments to the clavicle
10. Inflammation of the supraspinatus tendon
11. Inflammation of the subscapularis tendon
12. Pectoralis major muscle / tendon strain
13. Referred Shoulder Pain
14. Rotator cuff injuries / rotator cuff strain
15. Rupture of the supraspinatus tendon
16. Rupture of the long head of the biceps
17. Subacromial bursitis

Less Common Shoulder Injuries are:

  1. Deltoid muscle strain
  2. Sternoclavicular dislocation
  3. Winged scapula

Shoulder pain is an extremely common complaint, and there are many common causes of this problem. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis of the cause of your symptoms so that appropriate treatment can be directed at the cause.

If you have shoulder pain, some common causes include:

Bursitis | Rotator Cuff Tendonitis
The most common diagnosis in patients with shoulder pain is bursitis or tendonitis of the rotator cuff.

Rotator Cuff Tear
Rotator cuff tears occur when the tendons of the rotator cuff separate from the bone. Surgery is sometimes necessary for this condition.

Frozen Shoulder
Also called ‘adhesive capsuliitis,’ this is a common condition that leads to stiffness of the joint. Physical therapy and stretching are extremely important aspects of treatment.

Calcific Tendonitis
Calcific tendonitis is a condition of calcium deposits within a tendon – most commonly within the rotator cuff tendons. Treatment of calcific tendonitis depends on the extent of symptoms.

Shoulder Instability
Instability is a problem that causes a loose joint. Instability can be caused by a traumatic injury (dislocation), or may be a developed condition.

Shoulder Dislocation
A dislocation is an injury that occurs when the top of the arm bone becomes disconnected from the scapula.

Shoulder Separation
Also called an AC separation, these injuries are the result of a disruption of the acromioclavicular joint. This is a very different injury from a dislocation!

Labral Tear
There are several patterns of a torn labrum and the type of treatment depends on the specific injury.

SLAP Lesion
The SLAP lesion is also a type of labral tear. The most common cause is a fall onto an outstretched hand.

Arthritis
Shoulder arthritis is less common than knee and hip arthritis, but when severe may require a joint replacement surgery.

Biceps Tendon Rupture
A proximal biceps tendon rupture occurs when the tendon of the biceps muscle ruptures near the joint.

Seek medical attention if:

  • The pain persists for more than 2-3 days
  • You are unable to work due to the pain/limitations
  • You are unable to reach up or to the side with the affected arm after 2-3 days
  • You are unable to move the shoulder and arm at all
  • For any acute injury where you are unable to move the injured shoulder as well as the uninjured shoulder

Most Common Orthopedic Disorders

Anything that is concerned with muscles, ligaments and joints is considered orthopedic. Disorders are ailments, injuries or diseases that cause knee problems, whiplash, dislocated shoulder, torn cartilages, foot pain and fibromyalgia. These are only a few of the known orthopedic disorders. There are as many treatments for orthopedic disorders as there are problems and injuries in the muscles, ligaments and joints.

Most Common Orthopedic Problems

There are so many orthopedic problems it is almost impossible to list them. There are a few, however disorders and conditions are common and you will probably experience one or several of them at some point in your life.

  1. Arthritis is a rheumatic disease that has symptoms of pain, limited movement, swelling and pain in connective tissues. There are almost 50 million people in the United States who experience some type of arthritis. Arthritis is chronic or rarely changes and can progress slowly, and unfortunately many of the causes of arthritis are unknown.
  2. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that middle aged and older adults experience. The joint cartilage breaks down as you age and it can occur in the hands, knees, spine or hips. Often you will hear osteoarthritis termed as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease. It is very painful and one of the more common forms of orthopedic problems seen in doctor’s offices.
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease listed in the orthopedic section that causes sever inflammation of the joints. The inflammation is so severe that the functioning of the extremities becomes severely limited. Lumps generally form over the small joints and movement plus appearance is hampered. Adult rheumatoid arthritis last a lifetime and progressively gets worse. As an autoimmune disorder, rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the body’s immune system attacks its own healthy tissues and cells. It not watched, rheumatoid arthritis can also attack the heart and lungs.
  4. Fractures are definite orthopedic problems. Open fractures or compound fractures include there bone protruding through the skin or a wound that exposes the bone through the skin. A closed fracture or simple fractures is a broken bone seen, but not exiting the skin through a wound. Greenstick fractures are incomplete fractures. A small portion of the bone is broken; other fractures are straight line fractures across the bone and spiral fractures are actual breaks that spiral around the bone.
  5. Low back pain in an orthopedic condition that affects one out of ten people. Low back pain presents from mild and annoying to persistent and severe. If you have pain in your lower back your mobility is restricted and normal functioning is disturbed.
    One of the most significant orthopedic health problems today, low back pain, can be caused by overuse and strenuous activities, improper use and exposure to continual vibrations. Traumas or injuries to the back can cause chronic low back pain and degeneration of the vertebrae is a definite cause of low back pain. If you are obese or have poor muscles tone you will experience low back pain and sprain that continually hurts. Did you know that smoking is a cause of low back pain? Studies have shown that smokers have increase occurrences of this type of orthopedic pain.
  6. Neck pain can come from injuries or damage to the muscles and ligaments of the neck, a herniated cervical disk or arthritis. Tumors and congenital abnormalities of the vertebrae can cause severe neck pain. Twisting and straining is also a nick problem and neck pain can also cause headaches and general aching in shoulders and the back.
    Every bone, tissues and tendon in the body is a part of the skeleton system and a potential contributor to orthopedic conditions. There are ways to prevent some of the minor injuries, and the best ways to prevent injuries to your bones and tendons is to keep up an exercise plant. Stretching, running walking and aerobic helps not only the cardiovascular system but your bones and joints.